Jessica Dupuy for GuildSomm at the online magazine SevenFifty.com wrote about ‘new’ growing regions, including Arizona:
Here’s an excerpt:
Arizona: Desert Wine
Just as the flat, dusty High Plains of Texas may sound like a surprising place for wine production, so might the arid desert of Arizona. While this sunny state is most often associated with cactus-riddled vistas and images of the old West, in recent years, it’s been enlivened with the glimmer of excellent wine.
Based on a report from the National Agricultural Statistics Service, Arizona has a little more than 100 producers and more than 1,000 acres of vineyards. Due to its variations in elevation, the state has a wide variety of localized climate conditions. In the lower elevations, the climate is primarily desert, with mild winters and extremely hot summers. The mountainous northern third of the state has significantly higher altitudes, offering an appreciably cooler climate with cold winters and mild summers.
Sonoita, located about an hour south of Tucson, was Arizona’s first AVA. Once home to large cattle ranches, the plentiful rainfall and well-draining soils prompted several winegrowing pioneers to plant vineyards here in the 1970s. Willcox received its official AVA designation in 2016 and currently accounts for more than 70% of Arizona’s grapes. Though the Verde Valley is not an official AVA, its location in the northwest part of the state boasts high elevations and ideal growing conditions, with ample water from the Verde River and well-draining soils.
According to Nikki Bagley of Arizona Vineyard Consulting, the uniqueness of Arizona is its ability to attain a wide diurnal temperature variation during the growing season. (The swings can be as large as 50°F in the summer months.) Almost all Arizona vineyards are situated within the areas that achieve this, and most of them at elevations of 3,500 to 5,500 feet above sea level. The state deals with an average 12.7-inch rainfall during two specific rainy seasons: Pacific Ocean cold fronts in the winter and a monsoon that pulls tropical moisture up from Mexico to make for a brief summer rainy season. This higher moisture and summer heat brings lightning, thunderstorms, wind, and torrential downpours.
“We’re in an interesting place geographically. You can go from Mexico to Canada here in terms of the different biomes,” says Bagley. “The late summer rains mean we can’t be laissez-faire in the vineyards if we’re shooting for quality. We have to be focused on canopy management, proper spraying, and managing airflow through the canopy. But the exciting thing is, we’ve risen to the challenge.”
Like Texas and California, the history of Arizona wine dates to the 16th century, when Spanish missionaries planted grapevines for sacramental wine. The modern Arizona wine industry began in the early 1980s, following an experimental study from the University of Arizona. The first licensed wineries in Arizona arrived following the 1982 Arizona Farm Winery Act, which ushered in wineries such as Dr. Gordon Dutt’s Sonoita Vineyards, the first winery of this modern era.
Throughout the 80s and early 90s, vineyards flourished through the southeastern part of the state. The late Al Buhl established the 40-acre Dos Cabezas Vineyard near Willcox, with Bordeaux, Italian, and Spanish varieties, including Malvasia, which has gained a great deal of attention in the state today. (The vineyard is now managed by Caduceus Cellars, while Buhl’s winemaker, Todd Bostock, took ownership of the Dos Cabezas Wineworks winery, located in Sonoita, in 2006.) While the industry remained small in the 90s, it experienced another burst of energy in the early 2000s, with plantings expanding beyond Sonoita and Willcox into the Verde Valley.
“Lately, there’s been a critical mass of growers and winemakers who are pouring themselves into making great wine here,” says Bagley….
Arizona’s soils vary by region, but Bagley likens them to European soils found in parts of Spain and France. “On a trip I took to Spain, I was amazed at similarities in Verde Valley and some of their alkaline-rich soils. In Southern Arizona, we have more sand, but both areas bring a lot of minerality to the wines. Willcox has interesting volcanic ash in their soil makeup that has made their wines really unique.
In addition to Malvasia, some of the grapes proving most successful in Arizona include Vermentino, Picpoul Blanc, and Viognier. Syrah and Sangiovese have done well in Willcox, while Cabernet Franc and Zinfandel have joined Malvasia as key players in the Verde Valley. Todd Bostock has been encouraged by Petite Verdot, Graciano, Tempranillo, Tannat, Grenache (for rosé), and Aglianico. He’s also recently become excited about Kerner, Lagrein, and the Vranac grape. “We’re still experimenting based on what we’ve seen work in other countries with conditions similar to ours,” he explains.
Like Texas, because of heat and varying degrees of dryness and humidity, Arizona winemakers have had to adjust not only their viticultural efforts but also their methods in the winery.
“We can’t just copy things the way other people have done them in California,” says Bostock. “We have too many extremes. In the cellar, we’ve realized that newer French barrels aren’t as helpful for us, so we’ve moved to larger format vessels like 500-liter barrels and foudre so we can retain more freshness from evaporation.”
For Bostock and other promising producers, now is an exciting time to be part of such a young winegrowing state. He comments, “If you look at places like Texas, Michigan, and the Finger Lakes, they dwarf us in size, but if you zoom in on the quality of wine we’re producing for our overall size, it’s one of the more interesting regions to be watching. Quality-wise, we’re at the table, and there’s so much room for growth. We have a particular set of challenges in Arizona, but it makes the effort more valuable and worthwhile in the end.”
Indeed, when you look at the potential for the United States to grow world-class wine, the opportunity for growth is tremendously encouraging. It’s a topic that should compel American industry professionals scouring the ends of the earth to find the latest exciting wines to stop and consider what’s happening in our own backyard. As producers from California, New York, Michigan, Texas, Arizona, and everywhere in between continue to raise the bar for quality wine, time will tell how the rest of the American wine story will unfold.
To satisfy people’s curiosity about where to find us, we’ve added some downloadable maps to our website.
Here you can see us with a Scottsdale perspective: /assets/client/File/Maps/scottsdalemap.pdf
Here’s the Aridus ‘big picture:’ /assets/client/File/Maps/willcoxmap.pdf
Here’s the big picture with a topographical background: /assets/client/File/Maps/aridusregionalmap.pdf
Our gift to you…please print them as you wish!
Welcome back, everyone, to our primer on wine color! Last week we talked white and rose, and this week we're going to talk red and "orange."
We know that red wines get their color from the skins of grapes, but here's the trick: during fermentation, the skins rise to the top of the fermenting liquid, so in order to extract the color in the skins, we somehow have to get them back into contact with the liquid. This is where punchdowns and pumpovers come in. These are the methods we use here at Aridus. Punchdowns literally involve pushing the grape skins back down into the fermenting liquid. We use a tool that looks like a giant plunger, which I'll feature in an upcoming "Favorite Tools," post.
Pumping over is just like it sounds-- we hook up a pump to the bottom of the tank, and use a pump to move the fermenting liquid over the top, where it's sprayed all over the skins either by hand, or through a device that spins and gently disperses the liquid. I'll feature this in an upcoming post, as well.
A few other alternative methods of dealing with skin contact during fermentation are available to winemakers. One is the use of rotary fermenters, which literally turn and in doing so, mix up the liquid and skins. Of course, this requires a specialized tank that is set on rotating gears. The most common places to see rotary fermenters are in medium to large wineries in Australia. They've generally fallen out of favor due to the perception that they produce an overly tannic wine, but as with all tools, it's how you use them that matters.
Another option is delestage, which has the potential to be the most gental of all options for skin contact. This involves draining the fermenting liquid from the tank completely, leaving just the skins behind. Once the tank is fully drained, the fermenting liquid is then returned to the tank on top of the skins. This method is similar to a pumpover, but in certain wineries, it's possible to eliminate the use of pumps entirely, draining the tank via gravity, and using a forklift, emptying the liquid back into the tank using gravity once again.
One of the more interesting inventions in the wine world for color extraction is auto-vinification, which is used widely in port production. Since gas is also a byproduct of fermentation, auto-vinification utilizes the pressure of the CO2 that is generated to push the fermenting liquid up and over the top of the cap. During the height of fermentation, this can mean an almost near-constant pump over action, which is great for port producers who are looking for lots of color extraction over a short period of time.
Finally, we've got "orange" wines. What are these? In essence, they're white wines produced in the same manner as red wines. Depending on the variety of grape, this could result in a wine that does indeed have an orange hue. However, there are many white grape varieties that do not have highly pigmented color compounds in the skins, and so the wine remaind a yellow or golden color. A more accurate term for these wines would probably be "skin contact whites," and they can be made using any of the methods discussed above. These are a relatively small portion of the market, and as you can imagine, they vary in flavor, texture, and color just as much as any red wine does from another. In fact, this is a very old style of wine, and the tradition of making white wines in this way has continued unbroked for thousands of years in regions like Georgia (the country), and parts of East and Central Europe. We have a skin contact white available in the tasting room-- it's our Orange Muscat, and it's one of my personal favorites. It's not sweet, and it's not as floral as your typical Muscat-- the skin contact allows for other complex flavors and aromas to develop. I like the peachy, tea-like aromas and flavors that I get on it. Stop by and try it if your interest is piqued!
Lisa Strid, just back from harvesting in Australia, is headed to Napa Valley to ‘harvest’ some attention from members of the media and trade. She will conduct a tasting for journalists; she will teach a class on The Wines of Arizona. She will be a guest on Slow Living Radio and KVON Radio as well as record podcasts with several local wine authorities. She will visit Wheeler Farms, Smith-Madrone and Brasswood and visit local attractions including Oxbow Market.
Bon voyage, Lisa!
Lisa’s on the road in Napa Valley!
Listen to her on Monday July 9 between 7:30 and 8:00 p.m. on Slow Living Radio at http://crntalk.com/listen/ (select Slow Living Radio on Channel 1).
Or tune in on Wednesday July 11 from 8:00 to 9:00 a.m. on Barry Martin’s KVON show, http://www.kvon.com.
Where do colors in wines come from? It seems like an easy question to answer, but the fact of the matter is a bit more complicated than it would initially appear. Today we'll focus on the color in white and rose wines, and next week delve into the intricacies of red wine and the ever elusive orange wine.
First of all, the color of a wine is almost entirely derived from color compounds in the skins of the grapes called anthocyanins. (There is a small family of grapes with red-colored flesh called teinturier grapes, but only a small percentage of red wines in the world are made from these.) Anthocyanins are responsible for the colors of a wide range of fruits and vegetables, and can actually have different hues depending on the pH of the item -- at wine pH most of the anothocyanins present are colorless, but a small percentage are red, blue, or purple in color, and these are responsible for the color of the wine.
White wines typically are made from grapes that have very little pigment to their skins, and they are very limited in the amount of skin contact that they receive so as not to pick up too many anthocyanins from the skins. For example, grapes like Pinot Gris (see photo below) and Gewurztraminer are actually a pinkish hue, but the wines that are made from them are white because of the limited skin contact that they receive.
Rose wines are typically made in the same way that white wines are, with limited skin contact, but they will often receive a short period of maceration time on skins (typically just a few hours, but occasionally up to a few days - see graphic below) to pick up just enough color to produce the pink hue so many of us are so fond of. These are also made from grapes that have the potential to produce red wines, as the concentration of color in pinkish colored grapes generally isn't enough to produce the sort of color you'd want or expect from a rose wine.
Stay tuned next week for more info on wine color!
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